Archives for July2016


City of First Things in Bulgaria

Rousse owes one of the informal names by which it is known to its role of an economic and cultural center it played for Bulgaria during the second half of the 19th century and after the Liberation from Ottoman rule.

1In 1836 Rouschouk, as they called Rousse at the time, became the center of the Danube Administrative Territory, which in 1864 included areas from several countries of today. The Ottoman governor of this area was Midhat Pasha. He turned out to be a capable statesman and initiate economic and tax reforms. At the time, the consulates of Austria-Hungary (1849), Russia, Britain, Italy and Prussia (1853), France, Belgium, the Netherlands (1864), Romania, Spain and Greece were founded in Rousse. The city became one of the most important administrative centers of the then Ottoman Empire.3

The story of Rousse, however, got even more interesting: along with a source of economic welfare it was for its citizens in the late 19th century, Rousse also became one of the most important centers of the National Revival Movement, which sought independence from the Ottoman Empire. Twice the Revolutionary Committee in Rousse was voted to be the national central coordination unit in the Resistance. After the Liberation, the city retained its strong position by becoming the largest city in the Principality of Bulgaria with a population of 22,000 people, and became an entry point for Western influences in terms of architecture and culture. It was at that time when Rousse acquired yet another of its names – the Small Vienna.4

In the 1930s the Mayor of the city, Kiril Startsev, continued the successful trend of city development. However, the annexation of Southern Dobrudzha by Romania marked a downfall in capital and was the reason for the withdrawal of BGN 40,000,000 from the city’s economy. Of all consulates in the city only two remained. After the occupation of the city by the Soviet army after the Second World War, the Communists claimed Rousse to be bourgeois and many of its most prominent citizens were killed, convicted, or forced to leave. The scars from this economic and cultural blow are still evident today, when Rousse is trying hard to revive its economy, attract new investments, develop as an attractive tourist destination and sustain international relations.

6All in all, due to its unique position in the second half of the 19th century and the decades after the Liberation from Ottoman rule, it was only normal that Rousse was the place where a number of significant and fundamental for the country’s development events happened just there. The full list is very long, but we managed to pick up some of the more intriguing ones. Believe me, it was not easy at all!

Year For the first time in Rousse and in Bulgaria
1864 An Ottoman territory acquires its own representative institution – the Common Danube Administrative Territory. The first modern printing press starts working.
1865 Streets are given names.
1866 The first telegraph line between Rousse and Varna is built.
1867 The first railway line from the centre of the Danube Territory to Varna is built.
1868 The first exhibition of local industry and agricultural production is held.
The first factory for alcoholic beverages starts working.
1876 The first brewery starts working.
The first steam paint factory begins to operate.
1878 Rousse becomes the first Bulgarian city to have its own plan for urban development, the first curbs, sidewalks and street kerosene lanterns appear.
1880 Ivan Vedder launches the first Masonic lodge in the Principality of Bulgaria.
1881 The first metal ship is built.
The first Bulgarian private bank starts to operate.
1883 The first steam brewery starts to operate.
The first weather station is built.
1884 The first German-language school in Bulgaria and on the Balkans is established.
The first pharmaceutical community is set up.
1890 The First Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce is established.
1891 The first insurance company starts to operate.
1896 The first manually operated elevator is built.
1897 The first film show is presented.
1906 The first import of cars is performed.
1933 The first private-funded refinery is built. First Bulgarian Oil Industry is established.
1953 The first bridge over the Danube is built to connect Bulgaria and Romania.
1981 The first civil protests during totalitarianism are held.
The first attempt to establish a civil ecological organization is made.

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Sources
1. Peika
2. Wikipedia

The photos in the article are not owned by this website.

Profit-Yielding Building

dohodno1 One of the most familiar and iconic buildings in Rousse, the Profit-Yielding Building houses Sava Ognianov Rousse Theatre and is an architectural and a cultural monument of national importance.

After the Bulgarian Liberation in 1878, Rousse becomes the largest city and the greatest economic center in the Principality of Bulgaria. At that time, the local community of residents decided to act upon the idea to construct a building that would act as a cultural hub for the citizens, on the one hand, while its rented premises generate revenues intended for the development of the local schools, on the other.

dohodno2 On October 11, 1896 the Municipal City Council decides to allocate land for a theater building in the city center and announces a competition for its design. The winning project is the architectural plan by the Viennese architect Peter Paul Brang who at the time was designing buildings not only in cities around Bulgaria, but also in the Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Romania. The construction of the building began in 1898. The main building is completed in 1900 and the construction is officially announced to be over in 1902. The project for the theater premises is done by Mr Turnichek, a teacher in drawing, and by Romeo Giromagny, the Chief Artist of the National Theatre in Bucharest.

The facade of the building is a Neoclassical architectural masterpiece for its time and the decorative elements are in the traditional European 19th-century style. All architectural forms, ornaments and statues of the Profit-Yielding Building are made of stone. Seven figures rise from the roof and symbolize Art, Science, Agriculture, Handcrafts, Trade, Defense, and Flight of the free human spirit. Atop is the statue of Mercury as the symbol of Trade.

dohodno-zdanie-ruse On December 25 and 27, 1901 and on January 8, 1902 in the Casino located at the Profit-Yielding Building the Theatre played the Paris Junkie by Edmond Brizbar and Eugene New. This is considered to be the first performance of the Rousse Theatre in the Building. That is why the history of the Profit-Yielding Building is actually the history of Sava Ognianov Rousse Theatre, which to this day is housed there. Therefore, the more familiar name of the Profit-Yielding Building is simply The Theatre.

From 1928 to 1954 Liuben Karavelov City Library is located in the Building. From 1955 to 1990 the Zora Revival Community Centre is also housed there, and between 1947 and 1979 the Profit-Yielding Building hosts the expositions of the City Art Gallery.dohodno4

In 1975, the local governing body decides on a full reconstruction of the Building. In 1981 it is closed for renovation, but the reconstruction itself begins only a few years later. The overall renewal continues for the next 24 years. Finally, on July 1, 1999 the new Chamber Theatre Hall is officially presented to the public and on December 15, 2005 the new Big Scene Hall welcomes its first audience.dohodno3

In 2014 the Profit-Yielding Building is chosen by public vote the Bulgarian National Iconic Building of the Year.

Sources:

1. Wikipedia
2. To and From
3. Boulevard
4. Vesti

The photos in the article are not owned by this website.